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ULTRASONOGRAPHY

What is the sound frequency of diagnostic ultrasound?
3-15 MHz.
 
How is the frequency related to depth of tissue penetration and resolution?
The higher the frequency of the ultrasound wave, the less tissue penetration but greater resolution of near objects. Similarly, the lower frequencies result in greater penetration but at the expense of resolution. Typically, abdominal ultrasound imaging for viewing the kidneys uses 3.5-MHz transducers, whereas transrectal techniques use 7.5-MHz transducers for imaging the prostate.
 

How do tissue interfaces affect ultrasound waves?

Ultrasound waves pass through tissue but are reflected or scattered at interfaces between tissues. It is this reflection of the ultrasound waves that allows for the delineation of different structures. If no interfaces exist, ultrasound waves tend to pass unimpeded through the structure, which typically occurs with fluid-filled masses (e.g., simple renal cyst).
 
How is ultrasound waves generated?
An electrical current applied to a piezoelectric ceramic crystal results in vibration of the crystal with the development of ultrasound waves. Reflected ultrasound waves impinge on the crystal and generate an electrical potential that can be processed to provide an image on a cathode tube.
 
What is gray scale?

Current ultrasound instruments usually display brightness of echoes in 64 or 128 shades of gray (gray scale). A two-dimensional, clinically useful image is obtained
 
What is real time imaging?

In real-time scaiming, the transducer constantly changes location, {lroviding in essence a rapid B-mode scan that gives the examiner the sense of "live" imaging analogous to x-ray fluoroscopy
 

Describe the ultrasound characteristics of a renal cyst.
Typically, a renal cyst is a mass associated with the kidney. There are no internal echoes present, , the walls of the cyst are thin and can be noted circumferentially, and there is an enhancement of transmitted waves on the back wall of the cyst.
 
Describe the ultrasound characteristics of renal tumors

Renal tumors are masses associated with the kidney which often distort the collecting system. They usually have a heterogeneous internal architecture with poorly defined margins that are, at times, difficult to separate from the renal parenchyma.
 

What are the ultrasound characteristics of a stone?
Typically, the calcification in the urinary tract appears as a hyperechoic interface with shadowing behind it due to the no transmittal of ultrasound waves. These typical characteristics are present in calcifications throughout the urinary tract, including the kidney, bladder, and prostate.

 
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